A number of dietary patterns, both macronutrient and food based, can lead to weight loss. A key strategy for weight management that can be applied across dietary patterns is to reduce energy density. Clinical trials show that reducing energy density is effective for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. A variety of practical strategies and tools can help facilitate successful weight management by reducing energy density, providing portion control, and improving diet quality. The flexibility of energy density gives patients options to tailor and personalize their dietary pattern to reduce energy intake for sustainable weight loss. The recent surge in rates of obesity is driven by eating behaviors and food choices that promote excessive energy intake. A unifying factor for weight loss across dietary patterns is energy density. Strategies that lower energy density are flexible and can be applied to multiple dietary patterns to match differences in energy needs, taste preferences, eating behaviors, food accessibility, and cultural backgounds. Advice to alter the proportion of the macronutrients consumed has been the foundation for many weight loss diets.
Obesity is a complex health issue resulting from a combination of causes and individual factors such as behavior and genetics. Behaviors can include physical activity, inactivity, dietary patterns, medication use, and other exposures. Additional contributing factors include the food and physical activity environment, education and skills, and food marketing and promotion.
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